Beginning in 1500, the crown offered leases to Brazilian merchant groups, but by 1506 the monarchy took direct control of the trade posts after the leases failed to attract significant interest. The early explorers had found the coastal areas of Brazil to be sparsely populated and judged that the area's economic value was limited. The new states would fare poorly and only last 3 years. The pressure for Portugal to let go of its colonies began in the 20th century. João increasingly sought to centralize power, and he launched an unpopular war to conquer Uruguay. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Rotterdam University Press, 1970. Fragmentary evidence also suggests a previous expedition in 1473 by João Vaz Corte-Real, their father, with other Europeans, to Terra Nova do Bacalhau (Newfoundland of the Codfish) in North America. From 1534 to 1536, 15 Captaincy colonies were created in Portuguese America. In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil. His last two voyages to the east and southern east coasts of South America, by Portugal, especially the expedition of 1501–1502 to Brazil and beyond, and its meeting with Cabral's ships and men (who had touched the South American, African and Asian continents) on the African coast, at Bezeguiche (the bay of Dakar, Senegal), listening the accounts of its sailors (then returning to Portugal), were the most decisive for his "New World" hypothesis. The Portuguese and Spanish became great colonizing nations at the end of the Middle Ages. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Apr 14, 2014 - In 1620, the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Massachusetts. Through their efforts, the crown created two classes of Native Americans. These were later abandoned, however, when Portuguese colonizers began to focus their efforts mainly on South America. In addition, Portugal allied itself with Great Britainduring the European dynastic wars of the early to mid 1700s. Maxwell, Kenneth. Today, Portuguese is among the world's ten most spoken languages. The French did establish a major colony, France Équinoxiale, in 1611, but Portuguese troops captured the settlement in 1615 and permanently prevented any further French settlement. Pombal was subsequently able to gain a great deal of influence over the monarchy. Between 1630 and 1654, the Netherlands came to control part of Brazil's Northeast region, with their capital in Recife. The capital of the new governorate established its capital at São Salvador and the first Jesuits arrived the same year. They has signed the Mayflower compact before coming ashore. Encyclopedia.com. De Sousa founded two towns, São Vicente and São Paulo. And in 1557 Portuguese merchants establish a colony on the island of Macao. , Portuguese merchants have been trading in the West Indies. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese. Located in west Africa, the co… An early Portuguese presence in Sri Lanka is steadily increased during the century. Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians. , Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer in four Spanish and Portuguese exploratory voyages. These were known as the Pernambuco Revolution after the province where the insurrection started. In 1453 Portugal suffered an economic delay because the Islamists closed the way both by sea and land, which prevented the maintenance of commercial activities until finding a new route. Sugar cultivation required significant numbers of laborers, and the need for labor accelerated the slave trade to the Americas. , Portuguese colonization in South America and attempts in North America, Newen Zeytung auss Presillg Landt (in ancient german and portuguese), Former colonies and territories in Canada, "Uruguay Facts — Exploring Uruguay, Expat & Travel Resource Guide". most valuable resources shipped from Spanish America to Spain. 12 Jan. 2021
2. "Empire in the Americas, Portuguese What were the social, economic, and political characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese rule in Latin America? Portugal is a small Western European country at the western tip of the Iberian Peninsula. With permanent settlement came the establishment of the sugar cane industry and its intensive labor demands which were met with Native and later African slaves. At the turn of the 17th century, with the union with Castile, the Spanish kings favored the free movement of the people, and other lands of the New World, such as Peru and the Gulf of Mexico, were open to the Portuguese merchants. ... Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas. The combination of brazilwood and sugarcane made the crown reconsider the potential importance of its trade factories in Brazil, and in 1530 King João III (1502–1557) launched an initiative to create a more substantial colony. To such an extent, that, for instance, for the Portuguese town of Póvoa de Varzim, most of its seafarers dying abroad, most of the deaths occurred in the Route of the Antilles, in the West Indies. Schwartz, Stuart B. The new system was implemented so that Portuguese America could be managed correctly and provide a steady and wealthy income for the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese won a significant victory in the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. Vespucci suggested that the newly discovered lands (especially what is today South America/Brazil) were not the Indies but a "New World", the Mundus novus, Latin title of a contemporary document based on Vespucci letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, which had become widely popular in Europe. Believing the land to be an island, he named it Ilha de Vera Cruz(Island of the … One of the longest-lived empires in world history, it existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to Chinain 1999. His greatest impact on the kingdom's American colonies was the expulsion of the Jesuits, whose exile he ordered in the belief that they held too much power and influence, especially in the remote areas of Brazil. Given that all the countries that fall under the ‘umbrella’ of Latin America share some geographical, political … In 1820 a military rebellion in Portugal forced the return of the king and court while republican revolts spread across Brazil. After Columbus showed that you could get somewhere by sailing across the Atlantic (1492-1493) and Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope all the way to India (1497-1498), it was clear that European sailing technology was ready to go anywhere in the world. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. From 1565 through 1567, Mem de Sá, the third Governor General of Brazil, successfully destroyed a ten-year-old French colony called France Antarctique, at Guanabara Bay. During the 1600s, the Dutch emerged as the main rival to Portugal in the Americas. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 divided the Earth outside Europe into Castilian and Portuguese global territorial hemispheres for exclusive conquest and colonization. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. The University of Mexico was established as early as 1551. The failure of the other donatarios led João to reassert royal control in the 1540s and to appoint a governor-general in 1549. In September 1821 the Portuguese Parliament abolished Brazil's status as a separate kingdom and sent troops to bolster the colonial government. As a result, Portugal became part of India, which was under its mandate until 1960. A year later, Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512) further explored the coast of modern Brazil in a series of expeditions sponsored by Portugal. During this period, the Portuguese concentrated on exporting brazilwood from the Americas but did not seek to establish any large colonies. The Portuguese built a settlement at Sacramento in 1680 on land claimed by Spain and far beyond the western boundary of the Portuguese Empire as established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th centu… Portuguese Colonial architecture can primarily be found in South America, as well as South Asia and parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Vespucci wrote that they headed toward the southwest-south, following "a long, unbending coastline". The captaincies had control over trade and taxes in their jurisdictions, except for royal monopolies. The crown granted official approval to import slaves into Brazil in 1559, and the slave trade dramatically increased in the 1570s. Sovereignty and Society in Colonial Brazil: The High Court of Bahia and its Judges, 1609–1751. Portuguese cooking is growing in popularity in the United States and many other countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978. Kieman, Mathias C. The Indian Policy of Portugal in the Amazon Region, 1614–1693. This event brought the Arabic language, which also left its mark on between 400 and 800 Portuguese words. The island of Bombay is ceded to the Portuguese in 1534. A range of factors made the Portuguese Empire in the Americas unique, and these have had long-lasting implications and ramifications. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Like Brazil, Angola was formerly a Portuguese colony. They sought religious freedom instead of commercial profit. To escape the advancing Fren… It can be formed by Portugal. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995. , The Portuguese founded the first Uruguayan city, Colónia do Sacramento, and Guanare in Venezuela. In 1751, the State of Maranhão was restructured into the State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, with a new capital and government. Pombal eliminated certain concessions enjoyed by foreign merchants, especially the British. In 1580, however, Portugal and Spain began a period of dual monarchy under the Hapsburgs. João's son, Dom Pedro (1798–1834), who was serving as regent, led a revolt and declared Brazilian independence on September 7, 1822. The Early Navigators practically have been to the entire Caribbean, from The Bahamas to Jamaica. Portugal attempted to establish colonies in Africa, but the defeat of a Portuguese army in Tangier, Morocco, in 1436 led the kingdom increasingly to concentrate on sea explorations in search of an alternate route to Asia that would bypass the Venetian-controlled trade routes in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, some historians have suggested that the Portuguese may have encountered the South American bulge earlier while sailing the "volta do mar" (in the Southwest Atlantic), hence the insistence of King John II in moving the line west of the line agreed upon in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450.  From the east coast, the fleet then turned eastward to resume the journey to the southern tip of Africa and India. Natives who converted to Christianity were resettled into Jesuit-controlled enclaves known as aldeias. He and his nephew, Estácio de Sá, then founded the city of Rio de Janeiro in March 1567. The history of Colonialism as a policy or practice go…, PLYMOUTH COLONY (or Plantation), the second permanent English settlement in North America, was founded in 1620 by settlers including a group of relig…, Empires and Nation-States: Political Geography, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese, Government, Colonial, in Portuguese America. Permanent habitation in Brazil did not begin until São Vicente was founded in 1532 by Martim Afonso de Sousa, although temporary trading posts were established earlier to collect brazilwood, used as a dye. But when the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divided the world between Portugal and Spain along a north-south line 1,770 kilometers (1,100 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands, Portugal unwittingly acquired the land that was to become known as Brazil. João III ushered in the era of Portuguese colonization in Brazil in 1533 with the donatory captaincies. From 1534 to 1536, 15 Captaincy colonies were created in Portuguese America. The colonies built universities, for the Church's need for educated priests. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Other settlements and forts were established later with their main trade being slaves who were sent to the New World in exchange for products from Europe. 13 terms. The Portuguese-speaking African countries (Portuguese: Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa; PALOP), also known as Lusophone Africa, consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea. The discovery also prompted a new wave of settlement by Portuguese and other European adventurers and put new pressures on the native population. As a result, Brazil did not split into several countries, as happened to its Spanish-speaking neighbors. Instead, Lisbon devoted its attention and resources to its growing empire in Africa and Asia. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Possessions. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1954. Sugar cane was a very profitable resource, but to grow it, it implied to have many workers, and these were the Native Americans. Portuguese took to the sea and eventually formed colonies as far away as Macao in China. These settlements were more successful in the southern regions. The dual monarchy lasted until 1640, and the period was marked by a reduction of imperial tensions between the two powers. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese, "Empire in the Americas, Portuguese These are the remains of the first European country that explored the world in search of spices and souls. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Rev. colony, any nonself-governing territory subject to the jurisdiction of a usually distant country. 1469–1524) landed in India and established trading posts that were to be the building blocks of Portugal's great maritime empire in Asia. Portugal was a leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. Most likely there were also Portuguese military attaches in Algeria during the French Algerian war of 1954 … Accompanying de Sousa was a company of Jesuits who endeavored to convert the natives. Even after Portugal was liberated from French forces, the monarchy remained in Rio. It was influenced by the languages introduced to the region during the barbaric invasions, particularly German, and much later in history, the Moorish invasions. The king dispatched Martín Alfonso de Sousa (d. 1564) with a fleet and instructions to rid Brazil of any French presence and to establish settlements (the French argued that Portuguese claims to territory were invalid because there were no permanent settlements in the areas claimed by Lisbon). This and the following expeditions of Cristóvão Jacques to the River Plate and into the Parana River in 1521; and of Martim Afonso de Sousa and his brother Pero Lopes de Sousa, in 1530–1532, from the Amazon river, to Lagoa dos Patos and to the rivers Plate and Paraná, reinforced and demonstrated Portuguese interest in the River Plate.  João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521. There were four reasons that Portuguese America remained a single country, while Spanish America split into many countries.  Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. However, the donatory system displaced tribes, and the rise of sugarcane plantations led to efforts to enslave native peoples. 6.4-6.5 Rhombi, Rectangles, Squares. Growing profits from sugar cultivation led to renewed interest in Brazil from the other colonial powers. Nonetheless, the Portuguese-founded towns of Portugal Cove-St. Philip's, St. Peter's, St. John's, Conception Bay and surrounding areas of east Canada remains important as a cultural region, even today. In Latin America, Brazil is a former colony of Portugal, and has Portuguese as its official language. The Portuguese were among the first Europeans to establish colonies in the Americas. Under this unique system, the monarchy divided Brazil into fifteen zones, or captaincies (these were royal gifts, known as donatarios, granted to various courtiers and royal favorites). competing types or styles of colonial rules as well as patterns of development adopted by different European powers in their respective colonies in Africa; examine the British, French, Belgian and Portuguese types of rule in Africa and identify some of the major reasons why each colonial power adopted its own distinct form of policy. In 1555 the French established a significant colony in Guanabara Bay. The result was armed conflict between Portuguese settlers and natives. Chronology of the Portuguese Colonies, Portuguese forts and settlements, Portuguese colonies He also founded the colonial capital, Salvador. Encyclopedia.com. The rebellion failed, but it seriously undermined the monarchy. 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