Smelik, Anneke. Feminist film theory refers to the practice of analyzing media in its treatment of women and other minorities, which tends to inflame tensions within fandom. Mulvey has shone a light on the old-fashioned and repetitive style of cinema we see every day, and her ideologies have helped create a more modern and truthful version of cinema as we now have more realistic portrayals of women than ever before. 5 – 1980: New Wave, Cinema City, Jackie Chan & John Woo, The History of Hong Kong Action Cinema Pt. It infers that men hold the answer and are the root to women’s happiness. Scholars are also taking increasingly global perspectives, responding to postcolonialist criticisms of perceived Anglo- and Eurocentrism in the academy more generally. Choose from 500 different sets of feminist film theory flashcards on Quizlet. The traditional interpretation of this theory is based on the common ideology of feminism within the Communication world. Second-wave feminism is rooted in Marxist thought and in the women’s liberation movements of the 1960s and 1970s. RUPAUL’S DRAG RACE S13E1 “The Pork Chop”: The 2021 Stress Check Nobody Asked For, BILLIONS (S5E7) “The Limitless Sh*t”: This Is Scarface Drug, Not Limitless, The Ripper: Come for The Investigation, Stay for Commentary, THE STAND: Doesn’t Realize Its Full Potential, The Latest Podcast #18: One Night in Miami, Supernova, BLINDSPOTS Podcast Episode 8: My Neighbor Totoro & The Cider House Rules, Film Inquiry Recommends: The Films of 1973. This unoriginal and predictable character archetype did not stop at the first few films either, as Bay continued to cast limited women in his films, and all the women included in the franchise are deemed stereotypically attractive, as their careers in acting are secondary to their modelling careers. Overall, it is clear that Mulvey‘s theory can be applied to a vast amount of films, for example Spring Breakers(2012), the Lara Croftmovies (2001-2003), The Avengers(2012) and some less obvious movies, such as Aladdin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. What kind of message does this transmit? Her theory on how women are portrayed in film and the media is just as prevalent today as it was in 1975 when her text was first published. , Claire Johnston put forth the idea that women's cinema can function as "counter cinema." McHugh, Kathleen and Vivian Sobchack. Marxist Theory on Films is one of the most archaic frame of cinematic hypothesis. Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability by Patricia White. Although Mulvey‘s theory has helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still have the same issues decades later? As these areas have grown the framework created in feminist film theory have been adapted to fit into analysing other forms of media.. Why do we still see the same roles for women in film and television regurgitated over and over again? Which films do you think Laura Mulvey’s theory can be applied to? Unfortunately, because Disney know people will pay to see this predictable and outdated narrative, they retell the same story over and over for profit, and with the company being worth a total of 74.9 billion US dollars, why would they stop? A key idea of feminist film theory, the concept of the male gaze was introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Feminist Film heory paradigm in feminist ilm theory, produc- ing pertinent readings of many Hollywood ANNEKE SMELIK genres like melodrama, ilm noir, horror, Radboud University Nijmegen, he Netherlands science iction, and the action movie. Additionally, they have begun to explore notions of difference, engaging in dialogue about the differences among women (part of movement away from essentialism in feminist work more generally), the various methodologies and perspectives contained under the umbrella of feminist film theory, and the multiplicity of methods and intended effects that influence the development of films. Mulvey's contribution, however, initiated the intersection of film theory, psychoanalysis and feminism. Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. The growing female presence in the film industry was seen as a positive step toward realizing this goal, by drawing attention to feminist issues and putting forth an alternative, true-to-life view of women. Janet Bergstrom's article “Enunciation and Sexual Difference” (1979) uses Sigmund Freud's ideas of bisexual responses, arguing that women are capable of identifying with male characters and men with women characters, either successively or simultaneously. Feminist Film Theory is alive and well today and has even transcended scholars into pop culture with the Bechdel Test. Mulvey calls for an eradication of female sexual objectivity, aligning herself with second-wave feminism. Page 20-23. Mulvey states that “the gender power asymmetry is a controlling force in cinema and constructed for the pleasure of the male viewer, which is deeply rooted in patriarchal ideologies and discourses.” This means that the male viewer is the target audience, therefore their needs are met first and that this problem stems from an old fashioned, male-driven society. Feminism, a belief in the political, economic and cultural equality of women, has roots in the earliest eras of human civilization. This included how passive or active they were, and the amount of screen time they were given. Rich, B. Ruby. :28, In the paper, Mulvey calls for a destruction of modern film structure as the only way to free women from their sexual objectification in film. Typical examples of the male gaze include medium close-up shots of women from over a man’s shoulder, shots that pan and fixate on a woman’s body, and scenes that frequently occur which show a man actively observing a passive woman. What if the young girls watching these films don’t feel as thin or as flawless as these characters? 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The film journal Jump Cut published a special issue about titled "Lesbians and Film" in 1981 which examined the lack of lesbian identities in film. Sign up to get our cinematic goodness delivered to your inbox every weekend. 6 – 1980-2000: Handover & Second Wave, The History of Hong Kong Action Pt. The Male Gaze theory, in a nutshell, is where women in the media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man, and that these women are represented as passive objects of male desire. Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms. Feminists have many approaches to cinema analysis, regarding the film elements analyzed and their theoretical underpinnings. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. "Women’s Cinema as Counter Cinema.". Join a community of like-minded readers who are passionate about cinema - get access to our private members Network, give back to independent filmmakers, and more. With this, it’s no doubt that these men have a sense of power over everything, since they are in charge. So then, feminist film theory becomes a reason to hate and disavow movies if you’re a feminist. The only way to do so, Mulvey argues, is by destroying the element of voyeurism and "the invisible guest". With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go … Don’t feel like reading and would prefer to listen, instead? Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. This gave rise to a contradiction: whereas feminist film theorists scrupulously analyzed the systematic oppression of the female subject in film, contributions to film history celebrated the strengths of … Parent categories: feminism - film theory.  Initially, the attempt to show "real" women was praised, eventually critics such as Eileen McGarry claimed that the "real" women being shown on screen were still just contrived depictions. Feminist Film Theory: A Reader edited by Sue Thornham. It is a response to feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey 's term " the male gaze ", which represents not only the gaze of a heterosexual male viewer but also the gaze of … Examples Of Film Criticism In Film 1003 Words | 5 Pages. Another way Mulvey‘s critical theory can be applied to Disney princesses is through the plot and storyline. , Other key influences come from Metz's essay The Imaginary Signifier, "Identification, Mirror," where he argues that viewing film is only possible through scopophilia (pleasure from looking, related to voyeurism), which is best exemplified in silent film. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality.It examines women's and men's social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, home economics, literature, education, and …  This third perspective allows the male audience to take the female character as his own personal sex object because he can relate himself, through looking, to the male character in the film. But from this period onwards, it actually became more concerned with women's agency and desires, accommodating many new areas of thought and experience in the process. In part, this can be viewed in light of a more general tendency within film studies to position history and theory as oppositional. © 2020 Film Inquiry. , B. Ruby Rich argues that feminist film theory should shift to look at films in a broader sense. Feminist film theory by Sajid Imran Submission date: 09-Nov-2020 06:34PM (UTC+0500) Submission ID: 1440767041 File name: From Tarantino to Welles. While Laura Mulvey's paper has a particular place in the feminist film theory, it is important to note that her ideas regarding ways of watching the cinema (from the voyeuristic element to the feelings of identification) are important to some feminist film theorists in terms of defining spectatorship from the psychoanalytical viewpoint. For Mulvey, it is the presence of the female that defines the patriarchal order of society as well as the male psychology of thought. Jasmine, the Disney princess in Aladdin for example, features a small, tight crop top revealing her chest and stomach, and her waist is almost the same width as her neck, therefore enforcing unrealistic goals for what little girls want to look and aspire to be like. Includes readings from Laura Mulvey, Jacqueline Rose, Mary Ann Doane, Tania Modleski, Annette Kuhn, Jackie Stacey, Elizabeth Cowey, Linda Williams, bell hooks, Teresa de Lauretis. 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Her concept, from her book, The Matrixial Gaze, has established a feminine gaze and has articulated its differences from the phallic gaze and its relation to feminine as well as maternal specificities and potentialities of "coemergence", offering a critique of Sigmund Freud's and Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis, is extensively used in analysis of films, by female directors, like Chantal Akerman, as well as by male directors, like Pedro Almodovar. Feminism, the belief in social, economic, and political equality of the sexes. It was not until the dawning of the era of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the 1920s that this age-old supposition was administered in the academic work in the realm of motion pictures genre. As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter … They know films have the male gaze and that the male gaze is bad. They believe that they are giving the public what they want, when that isn’t necessarily true. Its dominant approach, exemplifed by such journals as Screen and Camera Obscura, involves a theoretical combination of semiotics, Althusserian Marxism, and Lacanian psychoanalysis. Laura Mulvey is a feminist film theorist from Britain, best known for her essay on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. "The Changing Woman" is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. , The early work of Marjorie Rosen and Molly Haskell on the representation of women in film was part of a movement to depict women more realistically, both in documentaries and narrative cinema. Stanford, CA: Stanford … bell hooks argues for example that Mainstream feminist film criticism in no way acknowledges black female spectatorship. An introduction to IB Film feminst film theory of the 1970s. Learn feminist film theory with free interactive flashcards. 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She argues for a removal of the voyeurism encoded into film by creating distance between the male spectator and the female character. Introduction. The third "look" joins the first two looks together: it is the male audience member's perspective of the male character in the film. Smelik, Anneke. In Janes Gaines’s, White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory, Gaines wanted to show how a theory of the text and its spectator, based on the psychoanalytic concept of sexual difference, is unequipped to deal with a film which is about racial difference and sexuality. Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. The historic link becomes most apparent in the inclusion of Laura Mulvey's article ‘Unmasking the gaze: feminist film theory, history, and film studies’ (p. 17), which, as Callahan rightly … Donna Haraway's cyborg feminism (1985) has perhaps been the most successful concept for drawing attention to technology as an integral part of feminism, and her work has been used to include a concern for technology in feminist theory (see e.g., Alaimo and Hekman, 2008). Psychoanalytic feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Sigmund Freud's theories of human emotions, childhood development, and the workings of the subconscious and unconscious. Some theorists have noted that in advertising, objectification and sexualised portrayals of the female body can be found even in situations where sex or representations of sex have nothing to do with the product being advertised. Feminist film theory however is often universalizing, and it makes use of complex language and alienating categories which deny women's experiences as active spectators enjoying films or reading them critically. Conventionally, the representations of media are counter to the. Additionally, feminist critiques also examine common stereotypes depicted in film, the extent to which the women were shown as active or passive, and the amount of screen time given to women.  Also, according to Cynthia A. Freeland in "Feminist Frameworks for Horror Films," feminist studies of horror films have focused on psychodynamics where the chief interest is "on viewers' motives and interests in watching horror films". Vie w project Anneke Smelik Radboud Univ ersity 119 … Become a Member and support film journalism. This degrading scene is also followed with a variety of other camera angles and shots which are clearly only included in the movie for sexual gratification targeted towards the heterosexual male. All the women Bay casts in this franchise are sexualised in some way, and it has no relevance to the story line, or as Mulvey would put it: it is just to please the heterosexual male, rendering it a movie with touches of irrelevant objectification and misogyny. Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. Page 7-8. The theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790’s. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies in the 1960s and '70s. Feminist philosophy of film is rapidly expanding as philosophers with diverse interests turn their attention to film. (They see this type ofrepresentation as unreal)Representation and Spectatorship are central toFeminist Theory. Not only is the Male Gaze theory relevant to cinema, but it also correlates with every-day life. In reaction to this article, many women filmmakers integrated "alternative forms and experimental techniques" to "encourage audiences to critique the seemingly transparent images on the screen and to question the manipulative techniques of filming and editing". Feminist film theory is a theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory influenced by Second Wave Feminism and brought about around the 1970s in the United States. 7 – 2000-Present: Life After the Handover, The History of Hong Kong Action Cinema Pt. They are giving audiences what a proportion of males want, and what the rest of society has been brainwashed to accept. Being one of the most notable film theorists in the world, her ideas and clear proof of misogyny in film opened up the eyes of many, and in 1975, something that people simply accepted was finally questioned. She firmly believes that Pirates of the Caribbean should have remained a trilogy and thinks Inglourious Basterds is the greatest movie ever made. Firstly, these movies have a huge difference in the male/female character ratio, instantly making it an unrepresentative movie as it doesn’t depict 50% of its audience. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.  Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. Feminist film theory criticizes classical cinema for its stereotyped representation of women. For example, the films Spy(2015) and The Hunger Gamesfranchise (2012-present) allow audiences to have a refreshing look at women in strong and powerful positions without a man by their side, thus enforcing the important message that women do not have to be put in a box and objectified, they can play a variety of different, versatile roles and they can be considered through the eyes of society in a way that doesn’t patronize and sexualise them via the Male Gaze. Feminist theory has made huge leaps from psychotherapy since its beginning over four decades ago. Feminist film theory has emerged in the past 20 years to become a large and flourishing field. LIFE IS EASY (LIE) Season One: Queer Body Swap Comedy Explores Real Issues, Silence & Oppression: A Cheryl Dunye Retrospective. It also examined how the process of cinematic production affects how women are represented and reinforces sexism. It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. This can be applied to anything.  Miriam Hansen, in "Pleasure, Ambivalence, Identification: Valentino and Female Spectatorship" (1984) put forth the idea that women are also able to view male characters as erotic objects of desire. Related: academic study of pornography - the male gaze - the final girl theory - voyeurism - sadism - scopophilia - women and horror movies. Unfortunately, some men take this power a little too far. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies in the 1960s and '70s. During the 1980s, feminist film theory became increasingly incorporated into academia and, according to its detractors, more removed from practice. The Queer German Cinema by Alice Kuzniar. History. Feminist Film heory paradigm in feminist ilm theory, produc- ing pertinent readings of many Hollywood ANNEKE SMELIK genres like melodrama, ilm noir, horror, Radboud University Nijmegen, he Netherlands science iction, and the action movie. The work of the feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, Julia Kristeva, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular. A Sharp Turn Towards Gold Ru-demption. The roots of feminist film theory.Started as a social movement.Early feminist theory and criticism was … “The Diana Ross star vehicle Mahogany (directed by Berry Gordy, 1975) immediately suggests a … hooks, bell. Prior to Mulvey, film theorists such as Jean-Louis Baudry and Christian Metz used psychoanalytic ideas in their theoretical accounts of cinema. While Lola Young argues that filmmakers of all races fail to break away from the use to tired stereotypes when depicting black women. She has written, directed and produced a short titled In Bloom and has a credit in the BAFTA nominated film The Selfish Giant. The emergence of feminist film history in the 1970s owed little to theoretical interest and much to political film reception. Read More. THE TEST & THE ART OF THINKING: What Does The SAT Really Test? Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law. Rich goes on to say that because of this feminist theory needs to focus on how film by women are being received. Feminist theories first emerged as early as 1794 in publications such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, "The Changing Woman", " Ain't I a Woman ", "Speech after Arrest for Illegal Voting", and so on. Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. Weinstein Feminist Theory 1494 Words | 6 Pages. Typi… , British feminist film theorist, Laura Mulvey, best known for her essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema", written in 1973 and published in 1975 in the influential British film theory journal, Screen was influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan. , From 1985 onward the Matrixial theory of artist and psychoanalyst Bracha L. Ettinger revolutionized feminist film theory. Every female Disney protagonist seems to follow a specific template, continuously made to be extremely thin and put dresses, and with the majority of these characters being white women, it can also make children question the worth and societal view of their race. (top image: The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) – source: Paramount Pictures). It evolved from focusing on fixing gender biased issues to a model of practice that uses gender, social location and strongly stresses the egalitarian model to understand human difficulties. Feminist Film Theory, generally is about theoretical film criticism that arises from feminist politics and theories governed by the second wave feminism rooted from sociological theories concentrated on the how the public scrutinizes how women delivers the attitudes, scenarios, and characters given to them to portray in a particular film in a television or cinema screens. 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