", Merk, 1978, p.308: "In Texas, on February 19, 1846, [Texas President] Anson Jones presided over the ceremony of the transfer of his state's sovereignty to the United States. Annexation was approved by the Texas and U.S. congresses in 1845, and the transfer of authority from the republic to the state of Texas took place in 1846. Rather than recall this courier, Polk broke his promise to the Van Burenites and endorsed Tyler's action.  In it, he characterized slavery as a social blessing and the acquisition of Texas as an emergency measure necessary to safeguard the "peculiar institution" in the United States. Merk, 1978, p. 279: "... it would precipitate a clash over the extension of slavery in the United States. In September 1836 Texas voted overwhelmingly in favor of annexation, but when the Texas minister at Washington, D.C., proposed annexation to the Martin Van Buren … It applied for annexation to the United States the same year, but was rejected by the Secretary of State. By 1900 the population had grown to more than three million.  But, during his last full day in office, President Tyler, with the urging of his Secretary of State Calhoun, decided to act decisively to improve the odds for the immediate annexation of Texas. The Annexation of Texas was one of the most debatable events in American history.  Walker bolstered his position by raising national security concerns, warning that in the event annexation failed, Great Britain would maneuver the Republic of Texas into emancipating its slaves, forecasting a dangerous destabilizing influence on southwestern slaveholding states. Texas's predominant concern was not British interference with the institution of slavery – English diplomats had not alluded to the issue – but the avoidance of any resumption of hostilities with Mexico.  In 1835, an army under Mexican President Santa Anna entered its territory of Texas and abolished self-government. ", Merk, 1978, p. 284: "Everett's report ... constituted a negation of the Duff Green letter and the charges Upshur wished to fasten to the British ministry ..." and expressed the opinion that Britain "was less committed to antislavery causes than had been its predecessor, or the British public. Texas was annexed as a state to the union by giving up some of their northwest territories if the U.S. agreed to pay for its debts that Texas had acquired while it was a free republic. C. In 1845, the Republic of Texas voluntarily asked to … ", Freehling, 1991, p. 364: "Tyler vetoed [the Whigs] banking bill" and "again ... vetoed [it]."  By running as a third-party candidate, Tyler threatened to siphon off pro-annexation Democratic voters; Democratic party disunity would mean the election of Henry Clay, a staunchly anti-Texas Whig. " Polk's handling of the matter had the effect of uniting Senate northern Democrats in favor of the dual alternative treaty bill. U.S. troops invaded Mexico in February 1847, and Winfield Scott captured Mexico City on September 14, 1847. Freehling, 1991, p. 443, Freehling, 1978, p. 443: "The South-leaning Democratic Party controlled the House by almost a two-to-one majority. ", Holt, 2004, p. 15: "... rather than seek new negotiations to settle the boundary dispute between Texas and Mexico, as even Brown's amendment had called for, he declared the Rio Grande the recognized boundary and announced he would deploy American military forces to defend it.  Now, northern Democrats found themselves vulnerable to charges of appeasement of their southern wing if they capitulated to Tyler's slavery expansion provisions.  Facing congressional and gubernatorial races in 1845 in their home states, a number of Southern Whigs sought to erase that impression with respect to the Tyler-Texas bill. 1 Answer Sim W. Mar 28, 2018 Polk. On March 10, after conferring with his cabinet, Polk upheld Tyler's action and allowed the courier to proceed to Texas with the offer of immediate annexation.  Secretary Upshur evaded and dismissed the charges, and pressed forward with the negotiations.  Polk's decision was based on his concern that a protracted negotiation by US commissioners would expose annexation efforts to foreign intrigue and interference. ", Crapol, 2006, p. 178:"Despite being preoccupied by these more urgent diplomatic initiatives, the president kept Texas uppermost on his long-term expansionist agenda. As early as 1836, Texans had voted for annexation by the United States, but the proposition was rejected by the Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren administrations. Texas conventions in 1832 and 1833 submitted petitions for redress of grievances to overturn the restrictions, with limited success.  When the Louisiana territory was acquired by the United States from France in 1803, many in the U.S. believed the new territory included parts or all of present-day Texas. Explanation: Polk was the president of the U.S. when Texas was annexed to the U.S. Answer link. ", Freehling, 1991, p. 369: "An American presidential election loomed ... [both parties] were determined to keep annexation out of the canvass. ", Freeling, 1991, p. 447: "The impasse paralyzed the Polk administration before the President-elect could take office. , The Anglo-American immigrants residing in newly independent Texas overwhelmingly desired immediate annexation by the United States. It would uneven the balance between slave states and free states and bring war with Mexico. Texas suffered throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s but later benefited from the tremendous industrial expansion that took place during World War II. With the arrival of immigrants, towns were established, farming spread throughout the central areas of the state, and the cattle industry began to thrive on the plains of West Texas. ", Crapol, 2006, p. 176:"... Texans, mostly Americans who had emigrated to the province ...". The annexation of Texas contributed to the coming of the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). In December 1844, lame-duck President Tyler called on Congress to pass his treaty by simple majorities in each house. 285–286: Calhoun "was known to be eager for Texas ... [and] had been Upshur's counselor on the issue. ", Crapol, 2006, pp. This caused the Texas annexation and revolution. He assured his friend President James Monroe that, when acquired, Texas would become "the richest State of our Union, without any exception. , President Polk signed the legislation making the former Lone Star Republic a state of the Union on December 29, 1845 (Joint Resolution for the admission of the state of Texas into the Union, J.Res.  Democrats were particularly uneasy about burdening the United States with $10 million in Texas debt, resenting the deluge of speculators, who had bought Texas bonds cheap and now lobbied Congress for the Texas House bill.
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